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FAQ about XMTP

Get answers to the most frequently asked questions about XMTP.


What works with XMTP?

In the spirit of web3 composability, here are just a few of the building blocks that work well with XMTP. Building your app with these tools can help you deliver and distribute an app—faster and with quality.


This list is not exhaustive and is just a starting point. A highly extensible protocol like XMTP can work with more tools than those listed in each section.

Wallet connection

To connect web3 wallets to your app:

XMTP client SDKs require you to use ethers or another web3 library capable of supplying an ethers Signer. These wallet connection tools, as well as others, provide this capability.


To store encrypted and encoded message payload content:

Decentralized social

Decentralized app store

To launch your own dApp stores and list any dApp, including your own:

Wallet apps

XMTP can be used with EVM-compatible wallet apps that support ECDSA signing on the secp256k1 elliptic curve. These include common wallet apps such as:

The XMTP SDK does not include a wallet app abstraction, as XMTP assumes that developers have a way to obtain a wallet app connection.

XMTP uses a signature from the blockchain account to create and enable the XMTP identity. Specifically, XMTP identities must be generated from and associated with an Ethereum account's public address and private key. As such, a connected wallet app must be present to generate the signature and initialize the API client in the client app.

A user can generate multiple XMTP identities from the same wallet app by changing to a different blockchain account.


XMTP works with externally owned accounts (EOAs) on Ethereum and Ethereum side-chains and L2s.

Because all Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) chains share the same Ethereum wallet and address format and XMTP messages are stored off-chain, XMTP is interoperable across EVM chains, including testnets. (XMTP itself does not use EVMs.)

For example, whether a user has their wallet app connected to Ethereum or an Ethereum side-chain or L2, their private key can generate and retrieve their XMTP key pair to give them access to XMTP.

XMTP is also chain-agnostic, so multi-chain support is possible.

Here are just a few of the chains supported by XMTP:

Does XMTP work with smart contract wallets?

XMTP doesn't currently support smart contract wallets. XMTP has been implemented to work with Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)-compatible wallet apps and blockchain accounts (wallets). It also works with externally owned accounts (EOAs) on Ethereum and Ethereum side-chains and L2s.

Which languages and environments does the XMTP SDK support?

The XMTP SDK is available for multiple languages, including JavaScript, Kotlin and Swift.

Have other questions or ideas for future language or environment support? Post to the XMTP Community Forums.

Which web3 libraries does the XMTP SDK require?

The XMTP SDK currently requires you to use ethers or another web3 library capable of supplying an ethers Signer, such as wagmi.

Where can I get official XMTP brand assets?

See the XMTP brand guidelines GitHub repo.

How should I handle the XMTP onboarding flow in my app?

In your app onboarding flow, enable your users to activate XMTP DMs. User access to DMs can help with app engagement and re-engagement. For example, here is a prompt to activate XMTP DMs in the onboarding flow to claim a Lens handle:

In your app onboarding flow, request user permission to display app-specific push notifications to reach users outside of an app session.


Is the XMTP network decentralized?

Currently, XMTP Labs (the company) operates all of the network nodes in the two available XMTP network environments: dev and production.

These network nodes operate in US jurisdiction in compliance with Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) sanctions and Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) export compliance regulations. Accordingly, IP-based geoblocking is in place for the following countries/territories:

  • Cuba
  • Iran
  • North Korea
  • Syria
  • The Crimea, Donetsk People’s Republic, and Luhansk People’s Republic regions of Ukraine

To explore the software for the nodes that currently form the XMTP network, see the xmtp-node-go repo.

XMTP Labs is working toward a phased decentralization of the network. To learn more, see Decentralizing XMTP, a minimum viable proposal .

Decentralization of the XMTP network will be achieved by a diverse set of independent third parties operating nodes all over the world. Decentralization is a top priority and is required to ensure that XMTP is able to serve everyone on the planet.

Is XMTP a blockchain?

XMTP is not a blockchain. Nodes on the XMTP network run software to store and transfer messages between blockchain accounts. For secure and reliable delivery of messages, the nodes participate in a consensus mechanism.

XMTP Labs is researching various consensus protocols that would allow the network to operate in a decentralized fashion while maintaining its current emphasis on user privacy and low-latency message delivery.

Will I be able to run my own XMTP node?

Yes, you will be able to run a node.

XMTP Labs is working toward a phased decentralization of the network. To learn more, see Decentralizing XMTP, a minimum viable proposal.

Does XMTP have a token?

XMTP does not currently have a token. Disregard any information regarding airdrops or token sales. If and when an official token is introduced, announcements will be made exclusively through XMTP's official channels.

What is the relationship between Waku and XMTP?

XMTP currently uses the Waku protocol to relay messages between network nodes.

Waku is an unopinionated transport layer built around the libp2p publish/subscribe model. Waku is intentionally open-ended when it comes to handling options like message encoding and encryption, which content topics to use, and how to create and manage encryption keys linked to blockchain account addresses.

XMTP provides a standardized approach to addressing these options, focusing on maximizing compatibility across apps and ensuring message security and deliverability, while also enabling as many developers as possible to use XMTP to build interoperable messaging apps.

How do XMTP clients communicate with XMTP nodes?

Clients communicate with XMTP nodes through a gRPC (or JSON/HTTP) message API.

What is the expected network latency for message delivery and retrieval?

XMTP provides perceptibly real-time message delivery and retrieval. The network does not provide service level guarantees.

Is there a way to get a list of all current XMTP-enabled wallets?

XMTP doesn't provide a direct method to fetch all XMTP-enabled wallet addresses in bulk. You might consider using a third-party service to do so instead of building the functionality yourself.

For example, services like Airstack and Blaze have compiled extensive lists of XMTP addresses by querying the XMTP canMessage API over time at a rate that avoids hitting the limits.

Does XMTP support group chat?

Yes! XMTP v3 alpha supports group chats in React Native, Android, and IOS SDks. However, the JavaScript SDK currently lacks support for group chat functionalities. If you want to integrate backend features, you can use the CLI, which provides a viable solution as described in this repository. You can also check out a practical implementation example available on Replit.


Who pays to keep the network running?

XMTP Labs is committed to keeping the network running. Future incentive mechanisms will enable the network to run autonomously of XMTP Labs.

Will XMTP charge messaging fees?

Most messaging incurs no fee. As XMTP decentralizes, messaging between participants that opt-in will remain free, while unsolicited messages will often incur fees or see token staking requirements.

There are no messaging-related fees incurred by developers for building with the XMTP SDK.

Have other questions or ideas about message-related fees? Post to the XMTP Community Forums.

What are the costs of XMTP message storage and retrieval?

Messages are stored off-chain on the XMTP network, with all nodes currently hosted by XMTP Labs. XMTP Labs currently absorbs all message storage and retrieval costs.

There are no message storage and retrieval-related fees incurred by developers for building with the XMTP SDK.


Has XMTP undergone a security audit?

Yes, read the comprehensive XMTP security assessment prepared by CertiK.

How does XMTP establish a secure and fraud-proof relationship between two identities?

Blockchain accounts sign and advertise a set of keys to start using XMTP. XMTP uses these keys to establish a shared secret between the blockchain accounts. It then uses the shared secret to generate a key used to encrypt an invitation that allows the blockchain accounts to start exchanging messages. No third-party apps or relayers are involved in this process.

To learn more about these keys, see Key generation and usage in XMTP.

To learn more about invitation and message encryption, see Invitation and message encryption with XMTP.

Does each blockchain account address have a corresponding XMTP identity?

Yes. Each blockchain account address is represented by an XMTP identity key. This identity key is a part of a key bundle that only the address that generated it can use to authenticate messages.

To learn more about XMTP identity keys, see Key generation and usage in XMTP.

Why do apps built with XMTP require a user to sign with their blockchain account private keys each time they start a new messaging session?

When a user starts a new messaging session, they must sign with their blockchain account private key to decrypt their XMTP key bundle. The key bundle is then used for invitation and message decryption.

Because there is no secure place in the browser to persist a decrypted key bundle, the app can use the bundle for the current session only. Once the user starts a new session, such as after refreshing their browser, they must sign again to decrypt their key bundle.

If you are using the JavaScript client SDK, you might consider manually handling private key storage, but only with the understanding that this approach requires the utmost care.

Based on developer and community feedback, we are researching more robust approaches to secure key management.

To learn more about these keys, see Key generation and usage in XMTP.


Where are XMTP messages stored?

XMTP stores messages in the XMTP network before and after retrieval. Application-specific message storage policies may vary.

What are the XMTP message retention policies?

XMTP provides both production and dev network environments to support the development phases of your project.

The production network is configured to store messages indefinitely.

XMTP may occasionally delete messages and keys from the dev network and will provide advance notice in the XMTP Discord community and XMTP Announcements forum.

Different approaches to long-term message storage are currently being researched.

Have other questions or ideas about message storage? Post to the XMTP Community Forums.


Which message formats and metadata does XMTP support?

XMTP transports a message payload as a set of bytes that can represent any format that a developer wants to support, such as plain text, JSON, or even non-text binary or media content.

With XMTP, these message formats are called content types. Currently, there are two basic content types available. These content types aim to establish broad compatibility among apps built with XMTP.

The XMTP community can propose and adopt standards for other content types, either informally or through a governance process.

Message payloads also include references to timestamps. However, timestamps are not currently independently verified and can be set to any value by the sending app.

To learn more about content types, see Content types.

To learn more about the XMTP improvement proposals governance process, see What is an XIP?

Have other questions or ideas about message formats and metadata? Post to the XMTP Community Forums.

Does XMTP have a maximum message size?

Yes. Messages sent on the XMTP network are limited to just short of 1MB (1048214 bytes).

For this reason, XMTP supports message attachments.

Does XMTP support message attachments?

Yes, via two XMTP improvement proposals that are currently in review status:

  • XIP-15: Attachment content type
    Attachment size is limited to just short of 1MB (1048214 bytes). To support larger attachments, use the remote attachment content type.

  • XIP-17: Remote attachment content type

To learn how to implement message attachments in your app, see Support attachments in your app.

Does XMTP support deleting and editing messages?

Not currently. However, XMTP Labs is exploring ways to support message deletion and editing.

Have other questions or ideas about support for message deletion and editing? Post to the XMTP Community Forums.

Message patterns

Is XMTP more like email or chat?

XMTP enables developers to implement messaging features and UX paradigms that best fit their needs. As a result, messages sent using apps built with XMTP might resemble many typical forms of communication, such as email, chat, text messaging, push notifications, and more.

Does XMTP support real-time conversations?

Real-time chat is a core use case for XMTP and is demonstrated by the XMTP Inbox chat app.

To learn more about how the XMTP Inbox chat app is built, see the xmtp-inbox-web repo.

Does XMTP support broadcast messaging?

XMTP natively supports one-to-one messaging. One-to-many broadcast messages, or announcements, can be constructed using the XMTP SDK.

To learn more, see Send a broadcast message.


Is XMTP compatible with viem

Yes. Though not by default, you can create a wrapper around it. For example, see this Lenster implementation.

import { ZERO_ADDRESS } from "@lenster/data/constants";
import { CHAIN_ID } from "src/constants";
import type { Address } from "viem";
import { useWalletClient } from "wagmi";

const useEthersWalletClient = (): ({
data: {
getAddress: () => Promise<Address>,
signMessage: (message: string) => Promise<string>,
isLoading: boolean,
}) => {
const { data, isLoading } = useWalletClient({ chainId: CHAIN_ID });

const ethersWalletClient = {
getAddress: async (): Promise<Address> => {
return (await data?.account.address) ?? ZERO_ADDRESS;
signMessage: async (message: string): Promise<string> => {
const signature = await data?.signMessage({ message });
return signature ?? null; //lenster uses empty string which could be risky

// eslint-disable-next-line @typescript-eslint/no-unused-vars
const { signMessage, } = data ?? {};

const mergedWalletClient = {
data: {
...{ },

return { data:, isLoading };

export default useEthersWalletClient;

You can then call it as shown in this Lenster implementation.

const { data: walletClient, isLoading } = useEthersWalletClient();

Why is my app failing with a "Buffer is not found" error?

If you run into issues with Buffer and polyfills, try this solution:

  1. Install the buffer dependency.
npm i buffer
  1. Create a new file polyfills.js in the root of your project.
import { Buffer } from "buffer";

window.Buffer = window.Buffer ?? Buffer;
  1. On the first line of your main file, import polyfills.
  • ReacJS: index.js or index.tsx
  • VueJS: main.js
  • NuxtJS: app.vue
//has to be on the first line of the file for it to work
import "./polyfills";

Does XMTP work with Bun?

Currently, Bun does not offer full compatibility with XMTP. Use Yarn as an alternative to prevent any issues.

Using config files

React Scripts 5
  • CRACO: (Create React App Configuration Override) is a community solution for adding custom configurations to Create React App. It allows you to customize your configuration without ejecting from the default setup provided by Create React App.

    Install react-app-rewired:

    npm install craco

    Create the craco.config.js in your root directory:

    const webpack = require("webpack");
    module.exports = {
    webpack: {
    plugins: [
    new webpack.ProvidePlugin({
    Buffer: ["buffer", "Buffer"],
    resolve: {
    fallback: {
    buffer: require.resolve("buffer/"),
  • React-App-Rewired: react-app-rewired is a tool to tweak the Create React App (CRA) configuration without ejecting, similar to CRACO. Here's how you can use it:

    Install react-app-rewired:

    npm install react-app-rewired

    Modify the scripts in your package.json: Replace react-scripts with react-app-rewired. For example:

    "scripts": {
    "start": "react-app-rewired start",
    "build": "react-app-rewired build",
    "test": "react-app-rewired test",
    "eject": "react-app-rewired eject"

    Create a config-overrides.js file: In the root of your project, create a config-overrides.js file. This file will be used to modify the webpack config.

    const webpack = require("webpack");

    module.exports = function override(config, env) {
    config.resolve.fallback = {
    buffer: require.resolve("buffer/"),
    config.plugins = (config.plugins || []).concat([
    new webpack.ProvidePlugin({
    Buffer: ["buffer", "Buffer"],
    return config;
  • Eject Method: Ejecting from CRA gives you full control over the configuration, but it's a one-way operation. Once you eject, you can't go back to the abstracted CRA setup.

    Eject the application:

    npm run eject

    Modify the Webpack Configuration: After ejecting, you'll have access to the config folder. Modify the webpack.config.js file:

    const webpack = require("webpack");

    // Inside the module.exports object
    module.exports = {
    // ... other configurations

    resolve: {
    // ... other resolve options
    fallback: {
    // ... other fallback options
    buffer: require.resolve("buffer/"),
    plugins: [
    // ... other plugins
    new webpack.ProvidePlugin({
    Buffer: ["buffer", "Buffer"],
  • Webpack: vue.config.js or webpack.config.js:
const webpack = require("webpack");

module.exports = {
configureWebpack: {
plugins: [
new webpack.ProvidePlugin({
Buffer: ["buffer", "Buffer"],
transpileDependencies: true,
  • Vite: vite.config.js:
import { defineConfig } from "vite";
import { Buffer } from "buffer";

export default defineConfig({
define: {
global: {
Buffer: Buffer,
  • NuxtJS: nuxt.config.js:
export default {
build: {
extend(config, { isClient }) {
if (isClient) {
config.node = {
Buffer: true,


What is XMTP Labs?

XMTP Labs is a web3 software company that contributes to XMTP, an open network, protocol, and standards for secure messaging between blockchain accounts.

XMTP Labs employees work alongside other XMTP community members to build with and extend XMTP. Community contributions and participation are critical to the development and adoption of XMTP.

Does XMTP Labs plan to build apps or are you focused 100% on the protocol?

XMTP Labs is focused on serving developers. We build SDKs, UI components, and example apps that help developers build great experiences with XMTP.

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